The Government of the Republic of Indonesia

State Philosophy

Indonesia is a democratic country that applies a presidential system and Pancasila is the soul of the Indonesian democracy. Pancasila is the philosophic fundamentals of the state. Pancasila consists of five principles that are interrelated and inseparable, namely:

1. The belief in one God
2. A just and civilized humanism 

3. Unity of Indonesia
4. Democratic citizenship lead by wise guidance born of representative consultation
5. Social just for all the people of Indonesia

Provinces

Indonesia has 33 provinces (including 2 Special Territories of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and Yogyakarta) and one Special Capital Region of Jakarta (DKI). East Timor was once part of Indonesia, but then through a referendum in 1999, East Timor became the Democratic Republic of Timor Leste.

Demography

The population of Indonesia can be divided into two major groups: in the western region most of the people are from the Malay ethnicity while in the eastern region there are the Papuans originating from the Melanesian Islands. Indonesia also recognizes specific ethnic groups that come from a certain province/area and have specific language for example the Javanese from Central or East Java, the Sundanese from West Java or the Batak ethnicity from North Sumatra. 

In addition, there are also minority ethnicities derived from Chinese, Indian and Arabic descendents. These people travelled as merchants through trade exchange since the 8th century BC and migrated to Indonesia. Approximately 3% of the population is from Chinese ethnicity, although the exact percentage is not known as the last ethnicity census was held in the 1930s.

Islam is the major religion of 85.2% of the population, designating Indonesia as the largest Moslem country in the world. The remaining population consists of Protestants (8.9%); Catholics (3%); Hindus (1.8%); Buddhists (0.8%) and other religion (0.3%).

Politics

    

As in other democratic countries, Indonesia applies the Trias Politica that recognizes the separation of the legislative, executive and judicial bodies. The executive institution is centralized under the president, vice president, and the cabinet of ministers. The cabinet is a presidential cabinet in which the ministers report to the president and do not represent the political parties.

The legislative authority is under the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) that consists of two bodies namely the Parliament composing of members of political parties and the Regional Representative Council (DPD) composing of representatives from each province in Indonesia. Each province is represented by 4 delegates that are elected by the people in the respective region.

The People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) is the highest state institution. Upon the Amendment of the 1945 Constitution, the membership of the MPR starting the period of 1999-2004, was amended to include not only the members of the parliament (DPR) but also the members of the DPD. Formerly the MPR consisted of the parliament members and group representatives. Currently, the MPR has 550 members from the parliament and 128 members from the Regional Representative Council (DPD). The parliament members and the DPD members are elected every five years. Since 2004, the MPR has become a bi-chamber parliament with the DPD as second chamber.

The judicial institution -since the reform era and upon the amendment of the 1945 Constitution- is administered by the Supreme Court including the administration of the judges.

Economy

Indonesia has abundant natural resources outside Java including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Despite being the second largest exporter of natural gas, Indonesia recently has become a net importer of crude oil. The agriculture products of Indonesia include rice, tea, coffee, spices and rubber. The major trade partners of Indonesia are Japan, the United States of America and neighboring countries namely Malaysia, Singapore and Australia. In the 1990’s, Indonesia’s economy experienced a set-back as a consequence of the economy crisis that hit most Asian countries. However, the economy is now relatively stable.

 

 

Indonesian tea has yet to compete with the popularity of coffee, but the drink has its own charm, with the country housing diverse varieties of tea leaves, culinary expert William Wongso said.
Defense Minister Prabowo Subianto affirmed that Indonesia should possess sufficient defense capabilities based on its huge territory and profuse natural resources.
President Joko Widodo acted as an inspector in the ceremony to commemorate National Heroes Day at the Kalibata National Heroes Memorial Park in South Jakarta on Sunday to honor Indonesia′s fallen heroes.
President Joko Widodo (Jokowi) will attend a series of leaders′ meetings during the 35th ASEAN Summit in Bangkok, Thailand, on November 2-4, 2019, Director General of ASEAN Cooperation, the Foreign Affairs Ministry, Jose Tavares stated.
State-owned aircraft manufacturer PT Dirgantara Indonesia (PTDI) delivered a military transport aircraft CN235-220 ordered by the Nepalese Army on Wednesday.
The Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage in Sawahlunto, West Sumatra, was designated as a world cultural heritage during the 43rd session of UNESCO World Heritage Committee in Baku, Azerbaijan.
Indonesia participated in two significant forums at the regional as well as international levels – the 34th ASEAN Summit from June 20 to 23, 2019, and the 2019 G20 Summit on June 28 and 29, 2019.
President-elect of Indonesia Joko Widodo (Jokowi) vowed on Thursday evening that he would become a leader for the entire nation without exception.
Ten leaders of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states have agreed to adopt the ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific concept.
Address: 1068 Budapest, Városligeti fasor 26. | MAP |
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E-mail: embassy@indonesianembassy.hu