The Government of the Republic of Indonesia

State Philosophy

Indonesia is a democratic country that applies a presidential system and Pancasila is the soul of the Indonesian democracy. Pancasila is the philosophic fundamentals of the state. Pancasila consists of five principles that are interrelated and inseparable, namely:

1. The belief in one God
2. A just and civilized humanism 

3. Unity of Indonesia
4. Democratic citizenship lead by wise guidance born of representative consultation
5. Social just for all the people of Indonesia

Provinces

Indonesia has 33 provinces (including 2 Special Territories of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and Yogyakarta) and one Special Capital Region of Jakarta (DKI). East Timor was once part of Indonesia, but then through a referendum in 1999, East Timor became the Democratic Republic of Timor Leste.

Demography

The population of Indonesia can be divided into two major groups: in the western region most of the people are from the Malay ethnicity while in the eastern region there are the Papuans originating from the Melanesian Islands. Indonesia also recognizes specific ethnic groups that come from a certain province/area and have specific language for example the Javanese from Central or East Java, the Sundanese from West Java or the Batak ethnicity from North Sumatra. 

In addition, there are also minority ethnicities derived from Chinese, Indian and Arabic descendents. These people travelled as merchants through trade exchange since the 8th century BC and migrated to Indonesia. Approximately 3% of the population is from Chinese ethnicity, although the exact percentage is not known as the last ethnicity census was held in the 1930s.

Islam is the major religion of 85.2% of the population, designating Indonesia as the largest Moslem country in the world. The remaining population consists of Protestants (8.9%); Catholics (3%); Hindus (1.8%); Buddhists (0.8%) and other religion (0.3%).

Politics

    

As in other democratic countries, Indonesia applies the Trias Politica that recognizes the separation of the legislative, executive and judicial bodies. The executive institution is centralized under the president, vice president, and the cabinet of ministers. The cabinet is a presidential cabinet in which the ministers report to the president and do not represent the political parties.

The legislative authority is under the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) that consists of two bodies namely the Parliament composing of members of political parties and the Regional Representative Council (DPD) composing of representatives from each province in Indonesia. Each province is represented by 4 delegates that are elected by the people in the respective region.

The People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) is the highest state institution. Upon the Amendment of the 1945 Constitution, the membership of the MPR starting the period of 1999-2004, was amended to include not only the members of the parliament (DPR) but also the members of the DPD. Formerly the MPR consisted of the parliament members and group representatives. Currently, the MPR has 550 members from the parliament and 128 members from the Regional Representative Council (DPD). The parliament members and the DPD members are elected every five years. Since 2004, the MPR has become a bi-chamber parliament with the DPD as second chamber.

The judicial institution -since the reform era and upon the amendment of the 1945 Constitution- is administered by the Supreme Court including the administration of the judges.

Economy

Indonesia has abundant natural resources outside Java including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Despite being the second largest exporter of natural gas, Indonesia recently has become a net importer of crude oil. The agriculture products of Indonesia include rice, tea, coffee, spices and rubber. The major trade partners of Indonesia are Japan, the United States of America and neighboring countries namely Malaysia, Singapore and Australia. In the 1990’s, Indonesia’s economy experienced a set-back as a consequence of the economy crisis that hit most Asian countries. However, the economy is now relatively stable.

 

 

President Joko Widodo (Jokowi) will shed light on the topic of sustainable city in connection with the development of Indonesia′s new capital city in his key speech at the Abu Dhabi Sustainability Week (ADSW) 2020.
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) inflation in 2019 stood at 2.72 percent (yoy), which is within the Bank Indonesia′s target corridor for the last five consecutive years, the figure of which in 2019 is 3.5 percent ±1 percent.
The National Development Planning Ministry/National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas) highlighted numerous strategies to accomplish the average national economic growth of six percent in the National Medium-Term Development Plan 2020-2024.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) decided to maintain its forecast for Indonesia′s economic growth at 5.1 percent in 2019 and 5.2 percent next year despite an expected slowdown in the Asian economy.
Indonesia has been successful in influencing several nations to use palm oil-based biodiesel fuel, Deputy for Food and Agriculture Coordination of the Coordinating Ministry for Economy Musdalifah Machmud stated.
President Joko Widodo (Jokowi) has invited business persons from the United States to capitalize on opportunities in Southeast Asian nations, especially Indonesia.
The President of Indonesia Joko Widodo has been named as the Straits Times Asian of the Year 2019, the Singapore-based newspaper announced in a written statement received here on Thursday.
The Ministry of Trade through the Directorate General of National Export Development (PEN) will hold the 4th Good Design Indonesia, an award for best design product, in 2020. The competition becomes the real support of the Ministry of Trade in motivating and encouraging businesses to develop design-oriented Indonesian products in the global market.
President of Senegal, Macky Sall, commended Indonesia′s role in supporting infrastructure development in his country through the plans to build the multifunctional building, Tower of Goree (Tour de Goree), and the sale of CN-235 aircraft.
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